General program configuration 编辑 请登陆,再编辑


This entry introduces general configuration files for programs.

Configuration file

Configuration directory

There are two kinds of configurations: user configurations (usually in ~/ and ~/.config) and global configuration (usually in /usr/share). Note that "~/" refers to "/home/YourUserName".

Backup configuration

For eaxmple, to back up configuration files of program "amule", simply copy directory "~/.amule" to another place, and copy it back when we want to restore this configuration.

Some programs, such as chromium, put their configurations in "~/.config". So we need to copy directory "~/.config/chromium" instead.

Delete configuration

To use default configuration of one program, simply delete its configuration directory. This is useful when some errors in configurations prevent it from starting.

Commonly used configurations

User configurations

Here are some basic configuration files that are usually hidden when viewed in file manager:


  • .cache: Local caches
  • .config: Most configurations are stored here
  • .dbus: Configuration of dbus service
  • .gconf: Configurations of Gnome applications
  • .gnome2: Configurations of Gnome 2 Desktop
  • .gvfs: Configurations of gvfs manager
  • .local: User-scope configurations of applications


  • .bash_logout: Shell commands needs to be run after user logs out
  • .bashrc: Shell commands needs to be run every time user logs in and new shell (bash as default) is opend
  • .dlockpid: (To be filled)
  • .dmrc: Default configurations of language settings of GDM / KDM session
  • .esd_auth: Configurations of ESD sound effect
  • .ICEauthority: Like .dmrc, language configuration of GDM session
  • .profile: Shell commands needs to be run everytime user logs in
  • .Xauthority: Logs for command "startx"
  • .xinputrc: Configurations for input method
  • .xsession-errors: Error logs from X session

Clean unused configuration files

Execute in terminal"

dpkg -l |grep ^rc|awk '{print $2}' |sudo xargs dpkg -P 

If following warnings are generated, then there is no unused configurations.

dpkg: error: --purge needs at least one package name argument
Type dpkg --help for help about installing and deinstalling packages [*];
Use 'apt' or 'aptitude' for user-friendly package management;
Type dpkg -Dhelp for a list of dpkg debug flag values;
Type dpkg --force-help for a list of forcing options;
Type dpkg-deb --help for help about manipulating *.deb files;

Options marked [*] produce a lot of output - pipe it through 'less' or 'more' !