Computers refer to modern electronic devices that can run according to the program, and process data with high speed. A computer consists of the hardware and the software. A computer without software is called a bare-metal computer.
According to the size and the mobility of computers, they can be divided into several types:
Workstation: Personal computers of high-level, generally connected to the network
Mobile computer: Similar to the laptop
Laptop: Small and portable personal computers
Netbook: Small and cheap laptops designed for web browsing
Ultrabook: Thin and light laptops with long battery lives
Tablet: Derivatives of laptops, with mouses replaced by touch screens
Personal digital assistant (PDA): Pocket PCs
- Wearable computer: Conceptual products
This entry mainly covers the desktop computer and the laptop.
A modern (desktop) computer generally consists of following components:
Nomination of hardware in Linux
In Linux, each device is regarded as a file. For example, the legacy hard disk drive with IDE interface are named as hda, hdb, hdc or hdd, all located in the directory "/dev". You may also find other devices here like
sda, sdb,... (for SCSI compatible disks)
fd0, fd1, ... (for floppy disks)
lp0, lp1, ... (for printers using parallel interface)
eth0, eth1, ... (for Ethernet cards)
- tr0, tr1, ... (for ring network cards)
Network interfaces, unlike other devices, are not seen as a fixed file in /dev, but added to and removed from /dev dynamically according to their presence. When a network interface, saying a Ethernet card, is detected by the kernel, it is assigned with the first available name of that type of interface, usually "eth0".
View hardware information
Using graphical interfaces
Hardinfo: A software for viewing system information in Linux. Recommended.
CPU-G: A utility for viewing hardware information, similar to the CPU-Z in Windows.
Using Web interface
Hardware Probe: List hardware, check operability and find drivers. Global database of Deepin installations.
Execute in terminal:
dmesg ## View kernel messages related to hardware lspci ## List all PCI devices uptime ## Show general information of the running state of the system inxi -F ## List all information of your hardware
View hardware temperature
Psensor: A utility for monitoring hardware temperature.