Introduction to hardware 编辑 请登陆,再编辑


Computers refer to modern electronic devices that can run according to the program, and process data with high speed. A computer consists of the hardware and the software. A computer without software is called a bare-metal computer.

According to the size and the mobility of computers, they can be divided into several types:

  • Desktop computer

  • Workstation: Personal computers of high-level, generally connected to the network

  • Mobile computer: Similar to the laptop

  • Laptop: Small and portable personal computers

  • Netbook: Small and cheap laptops designed for web browsing

  • Ultrabook: Thin and light laptops with long battery lives

  • Tablet: Derivatives of laptops, with mouses replaced by touch screens

  • Personal digital assistant (PDA): Pocket PCs

  • Wearable computer: Conceptual products

This entry mainly covers the desktop computer and the laptop.

Hardware component

A modern (desktop) computer generally consists of following components:

Nomination of hardware in Linux

In Linux, each device is regarded as a file. For example, the legacy hard disk drive with IDE interface are named as hda, hdb, hdc or hdd, all located in the directory "/dev". You may also find other devices here like

  • sda, sdb,... (for SCSI compatible disks)

  • fd0, fd1, ... (for floppy disks)

  • lp0, lp1, ... (for printers using parallel interface)

  • eth0, eth1, ... (for Ethernet cards)

  • tr0, tr1, ... (for ring network cards)

Network interfaces, unlike other devices, are not seen as a fixed file in /dev, but added to and removed from /dev dynamically according to their presence. When a network interface, saying a Ethernet card, is detected by the kernel, it is assigned with the first available name of that type of interface, usually "eth0".

View hardware information

Using graphical interfaces

Hardinfo: A software for viewing system information in Linux. Recommended.

CPU-G: A utility for viewing hardware information, similar to the CPU-Z in Windows.

Using Web interface

Hardware Probe: List hardware, check operability and find drivers. Global database of Deepin installations.

Using command

Execute in terminal:

    dmesg ## View kernel messages related to hardware
    lspci ## List all PCI devices
    uptime ## Show general information of the running state of the system
    inxi -F ## List all information of your hardware

View hardware temperature

Psensor: A utility for monitoring hardware temperature.


Wikipedia: Personal Computer

Wikipedia: History of computing hardware

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